I have purchased a 1TB hard disk with my laptop and would like to use it as a primary drive, ie.- shift all my software on the disk and make it bootable.Can I expect a solution to this.
The Debian ISO we have is customized to install only on the 32GB internal flash drive, so with that, you can't install on your 1TB hard disk.
However, there are other ways to do a complete Debian Linux run from the 1TB hard disk.
Before I suggest you the alternate method please note that the Linux installations are fairly straightforward in regular laptops and often doesn't require any additional drivers/firmware. If you haven't performed any type of OS installation before I suggest you please take the help of a system administrator or a friend who understand these steps. Please ask questions if you get stuck. Also, please backup all your data to an external drive (not on any internal partitions).
So, let us begin.
I: Preparing the live boot
1. Download the latest Debian KDE ISO from here https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current-live/amd64/iso-hybrid/debian-live-9.5.0-amd64-kde.iso
2. Download etcher-electron tool from https://github.com/balena-io/etcher/releases/download/v1.4.6/etcher-electron-1.4.6-x86_64.AppImage to your /home/user directory. This tool will create Live USB with Debian KDE ISO.
Open konsole application and run:
chmod +x etcher-electron-1.4.6-x86_64.AppImage
Insert the pendrive.
Then start the application:
3. Once done, remove and connect the pendrive to the RDP laptop
4. Start the RDP laptop and use "esc" key to enter into BIOS setup
5. In the BIOS use arrow the keys to navigate to "Boot" tab
6. Visually locate your pendrive in the "Boot Option Priorities" list, generally, at the end, hold shift and "+" key to move the pendrive entry to up one step at a time until it reaches the top of the list, once done press F4 key to save and exit. You should now see a blue screen with few options to choose from the Live Debian installer.
II: Install from the liveusb
1. From the Debian live USB menu select graphical Debian installer -> language English -> location India -> keyboard American English-> detect and mount cd rom -> no ethernet card -> continue -> hostname debian (already entered) -> set root password -> enter your username -> user -> set password for user -> Select 2nd option guided - use entire disk -> Select your 1TB harddisk from the drop down-> Choose all files in one partition (first option) -> review your partition and select continue -> Write changes to disk - yes -> use a network mirror - no -> finish the installation -> continue -> reboot
2. Keep the pendrive connected to the laptop
3. Post reboot you may not see the Grub boot menu, instead, you may get a windows repair screen, nothing to worry we just need to install the debian efi entry
4. Now again reboot with the live pendrive, but this time select the first option (live session)
5. Once you are in live USB session open the konsole terminal emulator from the start menu
6. On the konsole type the following:
fdisk -l /dev/sda /dev/sdb | grep "Disk /dev/" (see the output and confirm whether sda or sdb is your 1TB disk)
mount /dev/sda2 /mnt (for me it was sda2, please change sda2 to sdb2 if sdb is your 1TB disk)
mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/boot/efi/ (change this to sdb1 if your 1TB disk is sdb)
mount --bind /dev /mnt/dev
mount --bind /sys /mnt/sys
mount --bind /proc /mnt/proc
grub-install /dev/mmcblk0 (the boot entries disappear after reboot if we install grub on internal hard disk /dev/sda)
7. Once the laptop is off remove the pendrive
8. Download the following 3 drivers on the pendrive (may be on a separate pendrive if you can't write to this one)
https://ld.iitb.ac.in/sites/default/files/update-2-offline.run.zip and unzip
III: Post install configuration
1. Start the laptop (this time without pendrive, in fact first time booting to your new 1TB installation)
2. Now you would see a grub bootloader menu with an option to select 2 Debian versions, select the default one to enter your 1TB Debian installation, the first boot will take more than usual
3. Enter your user password at login prompt, it may take more than a minute to reach desktop on first boot
4. Once you enter the your new desktop you will notice the wifi/bluetooth/battery-monitor/audio not working. Nothing to worry, connect the pendrive and
copy all three downloaded files to the home directory, now open the konsole and run
su root -> enter your root password
5. Copy paste the following commands on the konsole:
echo "blacklist snd_hdmi_lpe_audio" > /etc/modprobe.d/rdp-sound-modules.conf
dpkg -i firmware-*
mkdir -p /lib/firmware/rtl_bt
chmod +x update-2-offline.run
6. Restart the laptop you should have a working Debian installation on your 1TB disk.